Treatment for Pituitary Gland Tumor
What is Pituitary Gland Tumor?
A pituitary gland is also referred as master glands. The pituitary gland is a small gland located near lower part of the brain. This gland releases a hormone that affects the function of the bodyand influence body’s other glands. A pituitary tumor is an abnormal growth that develops in the pituitary gland. Some pituitary tumors result in too many of the hormones that regulate important functions of your body and some glands produce lower levels of hormones. Most pituitary tumors are noncancerous. Adenoma remains in the pituitary gland or surrounding tissues and doesn't spread to other parts of the body.
Causes of Pituitary Gland Tumor
The cause of uncontrolled cell growth in the pituitary gland that creates a tumor is still unknown. Scientists suspect that genetic alterations or family history play an important role in the development of pituitary gland tumor.
Symptoms of Pituitary Gland Tumor
Following are some of the signs and symptoms of a pituitary tumor:-
- Weakened bones and muscles.
- Weight gain.
- Loss of body hair.
- Loss of vision.
- Lower sex drive.
- Extra hormones in the blood.
- Irregular heartbeat.
- Flushing of the face.
- Lack of milk when breastfeeding.
- Menstrual cycle changes.
- Lack of milk when breastfeeding.
Treatments for Pituitary Gland Tumor
Surgery is recommended by the doctors in case if the patient tumor is pressing on the optic nerves or if the tumor is overproducing certain hormones. The success of surgery depends on the type of the tumor, its size, its location and whether the tumor has invaded the surrounding tissues. Mainly there is two type of approach for treating pituitary tumors:-
Endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal approach: - In this approach the surgeons remove the tumor through the patient’s nose and sinuses without an external incision. In this procedure no other parts of the brain are affected also there are no scars visible post-surgery. Large tumors are generally difficult to remove especially if a tumor has invaded nearby nerves or brain tissue.
Transcranial approach (craniotomy):- Transcranial- In this approach the surgeons remove the tumor through the upper part of the patient’s skull by an incision. In transcranial approach is much easier to reach large or more complicated tumors.
Radiation therapy is given to the patients to kill the remaining cancer cells in the glands. This therapy uses high-energy X-rays to destroy tumors in the glands. Radiation therapy can be used after surgery or before the surgery to shrink the tumor. Radiation therapy is beneficial in case if thetumor persists or returns after surgery. There are many methods of radiation therapy. Following are some of them followed:-
Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery: -Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery delivered as a single high dose that focuses on the radiation beams on the tumor without an incision.
External beam radiation: - External beam radiation delivers radiation in small increments. This therapy may take years to control the tumor growth and production of the hormone.
Proton beam therapy: - Proton beam therapy uses positively charged ions (protons). The protons stop realizing their energy within their target. This type of therapy requires special equipment.
Treatment for Pituitary Gland Tumor in India
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